Superior breakdown denotes silver and gold 1000, but in this form they are extremely rare. The default assumption is that pure is noble. 999 metal. The amount of impurities does not exceed 0.1%. The content of this proportion of additives has almost no effect on the properties of the metal. However, when ingested in a particular environment, these components affect the structure and appearance of the material.
Despite such features, 999 proof has a high value, the precious metal of this category is worth more expensive other alloys. Based on the price of pure gold, the rate of different types of materials is determined. Alloy The highest grade differs in a number of characteristics, but not always for the better.
999: the concept (what is it) and the world systems of purity of precious metals (silver, gold)
Gold of 999 is called pure gold. Theoretically, this definition should refer to the material marked 1000, but it is extremely difficult to obtain it in artificial conditions (using affinity technology). It is possible to refine the precious metal as pure as possible, but it will still contain trace amounts of additives. Their share is 0.01-0.1% of the total weight of the precious alloy.
To determine the degree of purity gold alloy at different times used systems:
Today, the last of them is in effect in Russia. It allows you to determine how much impurity contains pure gold 999 in 1000 weight units (grams). In the same way, the proportion of additives in the other material, which has passed the assay, is determined by the highest quality rating.
We are talking about sterling silver, the content of impurities does not exceed 0.1 g, because the number is usually rounded.
999 gold and silver: meaning of designation, color and composition of metals
The color of the precious metal is yellow, it does not change, because the composition includes a minimum proportion of impurities. The main components:
Due to its low content, the components also do not affect the properties of the metal. As a result, 999 gold remains soft, unplastic, which limits the field of its application. The material is not used for making products, as it is quickly damaged and loses its attractiveness. This requires the creation of special conditions for its storage.
Important: Despite its modest characteristics, gold is very malleable, for example, if you use 2 mg, this amount is enough to roll it and get a wire length of 1 m and a thousand times thinner than a hair.
Table: properties of 999 gold and silver + 1 percent impurities
999 gold has contradictory characteristics. Many people consider it the benchmark because the Central Bank (hereinafter - the Central Bank) determines the rate of other jewelry alloys on the basis of pure precious metal. But in fact, some of the properties of the metal are considered disadvantages. They prevent the use of gold alloy in many industries. But thanks to the other characteristics, it is possible to use the precious metal, although often in a different form (soldering, thin coating, etc.). For comparison, sterling silver:
- weight: the weight of the gold alloy is heavier than the silver, and it is noted that the first of them exceeds the second in this parameter by a factor of 2;
- density: gold leads with a density of 19.32 g/cm3and silver - 10.5 g/cm3;
- Plasticity, malleability: both materials are easy to work, but 999 gold is inferior to the silver alloy, for comparison, the latter of the above-mentioned metals makes it possible to obtain up to 50 km of thread from only 30 mg;
- melting point: as before, the gold alloy is superior to silver in this parameter, its melting point is 1063 ° C, silver begins to soften at 890-930 ° C, so it is easier to handle, do not have to apply much effort;
- thermal conductivity: both materials conduct heat equally well;
- Electrical conductivity: 999 gold and silver are used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, the processing of parts of the working mechanism;
- Inertness: products of both types almost always retain their properties, do not lose their shape, but the gold alloy does not tolerate some acids (nitrogen), substances, but retain its color, by comparison, the gold alloy can be stored for a long time without losing quality, but the silver 999 standard gradually turns dark;
- The color of the metal in nature: today, people have learned to make jewelry and other products as similar to the original in hue as possible, which means that in nature, gold is contained in the yellow color, as well as silver - in white, in addition, it became possible to artificially change the tone of the alloy;
- chronicle of color changes: when you change the combination of different components, there is an increase in the depth of shades, as well as new ones appear (blue, pink, green, etc.);
- Hypoallergenic: 999 gold and pure silver alloy - both metals do not cause a negative reaction of the body, on the contrary, have a positive effect;
- antibacterial properties: in this parameter Au loses out to its analog, Ag, because it is the latter that destroys harmful microorganisms.
Branding on gold and sterling silver
The difference between precious metals lies not only in their physical properties, but also in the shape of the hallmark. For example, a gold hallmark is shaped like a spatula. 999 silver is identified by a barrel with numbers inside it. And stigma is not always the same. There is 999 gold, silver is older - five-pointed star. Even earlier it was a woman's head in a kokoshnik.
Interesting: When branding has its own rules: provide indentation from the edge of the ingot or other product, but if you are considering a version in the form of pellets, the 999 silver hallmark in this case can not be stamped directly on the metal, use another form of assessment of purity - a passport.
Table: Correspondence of 999 carats
There are two main systems for evaluating the quality of metals in the world today:
Different countries use their own version: USA, Canada, China, UAE - carat, European countries - metric. Gold and silver 999 in Russia is also determined by the second of these methods. The principle of assessing the purity of the alloy: calculate the number of weight parts precious metal per 1000 weight parts of the material. The 999 assay corresponds to 999 g of a 1000 g (1 kg) alloy.
To convert to the carat system, you should refer to the table containing the different ways of assessing the purity of metals.
Formulas for converting samples into carats and vice versa
There is a calculation method that allows you to translate the metal between alloy purity assessment systems. When 999 silver is to be determined, the formula is used:
M x 0.024 = K,
Where M is the stigma of the metric system,
K is by carat.
Inverse calculations are performed using a different formula:
K / 0.024 = M.
Technologies for obtaining other alloys and shades of gold
To change the color, it is enough to deviate from the standard scheme of producing a gold alloy. The introduction of copper gives a reddish hue. Previously, this material was called niello. But that was originally the name given to the alloy with the maximum content of the precious metal. It was used to make chervonets in the tsarist Russia. If you add 999 silver or platinum, the yellow precious metal becomes white.
Important: When choosing a different alloying technology, it should be remembered that changing the composition may have a negative impact on the properties of the metal: brittleness will increase and ductility will decrease.
Table: Applications of pure gold and silver
Different kinds of jewelry alloys have their own purpose. A 999 gold or silver bar has found a variety of uses:
|Mirror Manufacture||Gold leaf|
|Solder in electrical engineering||Formation of the country's gold reserve|
|Manufacture of batteries||Jewelry Production|
Interesting: Despite belonging to the same category (999 proof), gold and silver alloys have different properties, and therefore they are used for different tasks.
The advantages of pure gold five nines
The purity of the metal is sometimes 999.99 grams per kilogram of alloy. This is the highest possible figure given the conditions created when performing refining. The advantages of gold alloy:
- high liquidity;
- the ability to invest (a form of investment);
- a deposit account is opened with the bank, with gold being the currency (accounted in euros, dollars, or rubles), as the standard interest rate mechanism is used.
Disadvantages of precious metals of the highest standard
The main disadvantages of pure alloy:
- metal is inert only conditionally, it interacts with some acids (pure nitric acid, aqua regia);
- has a low resistance to mechanical damage (due to the increased softness);
- 999 gold alloy does not make jewelry: rings, bracelets, etc;
- Due to changes in the stock exchange, the price of material with the maximum content of precious metal could drop sharply.
Price of 1 gram of 999 gold today
The Central Bank of Russia sets the rate of precious metals. Gold Alloy 999 is constantly increasing in value. Its current value as of today:
|Gold alloy 999 at TsB/per 1 gram, rubles.||Market price, rubles.||Scrap, rub.||Jewelry stores, rub.|
Troy ounce of gold, pricing factors and price fixing
Factors that affect the value of gold alloy:
- Determination of demand for regular buying/selling;
- the country's foreign economic policy;
- high cost of gold mining;
- IMF policy.
When determining the weight of precious metal, a special measure is used - the troy ounce. It corresponds to 1/12 of a pound. This unit of measurement is used by jewelers and bankers. Given that the value of the yellow precious metal is constantly changing, the fixing method is used. It was originally used in Great Britain by the London Stock Exchange: it implies daily price fixing.
Price per gram of 999 silver and analysis of exchange rate dynamics
Today sterling silver is valued lower than gold, but there is an interesting paradox: despite the low rate of the precious metal in the market, there are more frequent investments in it. Average cost on the market - 62 rubles per 1 gram (according to the Central Bank). The market value is usually lower - 25 rubles.
The price of pure silver, just like gold, is constantly changing.
What is better to invest in: gold or silver
The yellow metal has been and remains a stable investment product: the rate may vary, but the trend is always upward. However, due to the increased industrial demand for silver, this metal will soon become more expensive. Buying it today will give you more money when you sell it.
In addition, silver costs less than gold, which will allow you to buy more metal.
Recommendations for the care and storage of gold in the home and in the bank
The main requirement when storing commemorative coins (St. George the Victorious, etc.) - you must leave the factory packaging. The same applies to ingots. Sell them without capsules is more difficult - the cost is lower. The need to preserve the packaging is due to the exposure of the metal to external factors.